YA crazy bitcoin project
This project is maintained by Rusty Russell
Gavin Andresen of bitcoin fame posted a github gist a while ago, about using IBLTs to send block transaction summaries across the bitcoin network.
(Skip if you’re familiar with IBLTs)
The IBLT structure is fairly simple: create a counting bloom filter, and attach to each bucket the contents of the thing you’re filtering (xoring in each time). If the IBLT is fairly empty, you’ll find buckets which only have 1 thing in them, and thus recover the things which were put in (this is the “invertible” part). When you remove those, you might find more buckets now have 1 thing in them, etc. The paper is worth reading, but this should give you the idea.
The clever bit comes by realizing that if I create an IBLT with everything in my set, and you create an IBLT with everything in your set, it’s trivial to subtract my IBLT from your IBLT and get an IBLT of the set differences. Which is great, because all bloom filters become useless when they clog up, but if our sets are very similar, the subtraction result gives a nice sparse IBLT. And here’s the paper.
(Skip if you’re familiar with Gavin’s IBLT proposal)
Gavin suggested some ways to adapt an IBLT to the blockchain problem:
Make each IBLT bucket look like this:
struct entry {
u32 count;
struct keySum {
u8 id[6];
u16 index;
u8 frag[8];
} key;
}
This gives 52428 buckets for a 1MB table.
So here’s a simplified example of 4 buckets of an IBLT:
count: 1
id: 0xf00
index: 0
frag: Feed Me
count: 1
id: 0xf00
index: 1
frag: Seymore!
count: 2
id: 0xf0f
index: 0
frag: 0x70x170x100xB0x90x1B0x10x53
count: 1
id: 0x00f
index: 0
frag: I love
Here each “transaction” has 2 parts (index 0 and index 1), we can see both parts of id 0xf00 exposed in the first two buckets. The result is “Feed Me Seymore!”. Now we’ve recovered that, we remove it, and it turns out that fragment 1 is also in that third bucket, so we subtract 1 from the counter and XOR out the other values, giving:
count: 0
id: 0
index: 0
frag:
count: 0
id: 0
index: 0
frag:
count: 1
id: 0x00f
index: 1
frag: Triffids
count: 1
id: 0x00f
index: 0
frag: I love
Now we can extract id 0x00f, which is “I love Triffids” (and leaving the IBLT empty).
For my experiment, I used 4 hash functions for each bloom entry, and just make the 48-bit id the first 48 bits of the SHA. I used a simple shell script to pull out the last 10000 bitcoin transactions.
You can find the code on github.
Let’s first look at how many transactions we can put in such table and pull them out again. This reflects the simple case where the miner has N transactions we don’t have (and we have none they don’t have). For each transaction, we just have to find a standalone copy of each fragment; since each fragment is in 4 separate places, removing a transaction as we find it may leave other fragments exposed so we can make more progress.
The result turns out to be a cliff: with 300 transactions we can extract all the transactions ~100% of the time, with 320 it’s down to 0% (this is only tested with 10 runs though). We only care about full recovery, because if we can’t get one transaction, we fall back to getting the whole block:
Now, reality is a bit more complex. We will have some transactions which are not in the block (I’ll call these “our” transactions), as well as missing some which are (“their” transactions). Indeed, if the network is working perfectly, we should have all the transactions in the block, and also any which have reached us while the block was being relayed to us, so we expect “our” transactions to dominate.
And it turns out that it’s much easier to detect transactions which aren’t in the block than recover those that are; we only need to find a single standalone fragment with count -1, and we can be fairly confident that it means we’ve found one of our transactions and should remove the whole thing. Finding a single exposed fragment for a transaction like this is far more likely than finding all fragments of a transaction exposed, and indeed our cliff for these is far higher, around 3300:
Finally, here’s a graph of interaction between the two, as the number of “their” transactions we need to recover and the number of “our” transactions we should remove varies. Blue is 100% recovered (ie. always success) red is 0% (ie. never):
There are three obvious things to try: 1. Increase the size of the slice in each IBLT bucket. 2. Reduce the size of the IBLT from 1M. 3. Add a hashSum field to each bucket as suggested by the paper.
Increasing the data per bucket from 8 to 64 bytes seems like a no-brainer: instead of 50% overhead for IBLT data, we’re down to 12%. Obviously we have fewer buckets, but it seems like a net win:
If we make the buckets too large (eg. 256 bytes), we lose as expected, as most space is wasted:
Using more memory (bandwitdh) for the IBLT is not a linear tradeoff: doubling gives us less than double the number of transactions we can recover. But conversely, if we shrink down to 1/33 the size, we can still recover 30 transactions (this map uses the 64 byte slices from above):
This is suggested in the original paper to provide more resilience against false positives, but I only saw this once, even with the very limited checking my program does that a transaction is well-formed. (I found it because my code initially didn’t handle it, and got stuck on one run).
Once we check the 48-bit id field, which is based on a cryptographic hash of the transaction, we’re already extremely robust without an additional hashSum. In effect, our id field replaces hashSum.
Obviously my code could use optimization and more testing.
Also, my selection of transactions was “the first N”, which means it’s of limited accuracy. For example, transaction 613 is a huge 50k transaction, so if it’s marginal the failure rate jumps there. A more serious analysis would try to create standard profiles of transactions.
More intelligent recovery algorithms are possible, which might help in edge cases. We could look at transaction arrival time, and try removing very recent transactions. We could also do some limited transaction reconstruction (though the bulkiest parts of the transaction are the signatures, which can’t be guessed).
Feedback welcome, as always.
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